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Requests for public records shall be made by completing and submitting the Vermillion Police Department Public Records Request Form (PDF). Upon receipt of a completed form, the Chief of Police or his designee will review the request and determine which, if any, records can be released. At that time, the requester will be notified of the disposition of his / her request, as well as any fees associated with preparation of the record. By resolution, current fees related to release of information are established as:
In cases where a request requires substantial research and/or preparation time, or when postage charges apply, additional charges may be incurred.
Parking regulations can be found on the Code of Ordinances website.
Yes, we take Master card, Visa, and Discover. By telephone or in person, credit cards can be used to pay any fee with the Vermillion Police Department. Fees do apply- $2 minimum fee under $50, or 4% above $50.
Formally disputing a parking ticket is a two step process:
The fees, which are approximately $40, must be paid directly to the Clerk of Courts office, which is located in the Clay County Courthouse. Should the Magistrate find you innocent, all court fees will be refunded by that office. However, if the Magistrate finds you guilty of the infraction, the court fees will be applied and the parking ticket fee also becomes due.
The City employs a rotating schedule for tow services. Depending on the service that towed your car, it could either be in the City impound yard or a private one. Contact us at 605-677-7070 to determine where your vehicle is being stored and to whom you must pay fees for its release. If your vehicle has been towed to Vermillion's municipal impound lot, the tow and storage fees can be paid at the police department, located at 15 Washington Street. This can be done 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Once all fees have been satisfied and any required documentation has been provided, you will be directed to the impound lot to retrieve your vehicle. If your vehicle was towed to a private impound yard, arrangements must be made with that specific provider for payment and release. Visit our Tickets and Fines Payment page for information on fees, fines an payment method.
Fingerprinting for employment, background checks, etc. is a service handled by the Clay County Sheriff's Department, which is located in the same building as the Vermillion Police Department.
Fingerprinting is available at times when there are jail personnel available. Give yourself plenty of time for any unforeseen circumstances that may increase your wait. Please call for times that may work better than others at 605-677-7117, or you can visit CCSO's webpage to find out more information.
The cost to get fingerprinted is:
The City does not have a lost and found. You may report lost items such as wallets and cell phones to the Vermillion Police Department or call 605-677-7070.
Parking tickets may be paid at the Vermillion Police Department, or the City Finance Office in City Hall. View other payment methods on our Tickets and Fine Payment page.
The best and most current resource for road conditions is the Safe Travel U.S.A. website or call 511.
The driver exam station in Vermillion is located at 11 East Cherry Street and is open Thursday and Friday from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. More information can be obtained at South Dakota Driver Licensing Information website or by calling 800-952-3696.
The Police Department 911 dispatchers are trained to ask various questions. These questions will help ensure a timely response to all emergency and service related calls. They are trained to ask questions that will determine the exact nature of the call which enables them to provide the responding units with the information they need to properly handle the call. All 911 dispatchers are Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) certified. Certain questions may be asked to help provide lifesaving pre-arrival instructions for medical emergencies such as CPR or choking. Please contact the Police Department if you have further questions.
City Hall is open Monday through Friday, 8 a. m to 5 pm.
You can contact the City Manager or schedule an appointment by calling 605-677-7050 or emailing John Prescott, City Manager. Visit the City Manager page for information pertaining this office.
Please fill out a Street Closure Request Form
City maps can be found on our Maps pg or at the City Hall location.
You may retrieve the Raffle and Lottery Notification Form (PDF) or get copy from the Administartion Office at the City Hall location. Visit our Permits and Forms page for more documents available online.
Submit and application on-line utilizing the Job Application Form. For information about jobs opportunities, visit our Employment page. Paper applications are available to pick up at City Hall located at 25 Center Street.
Yes, typically the hiring process takes 4 to 6 weeks.
The City of Vermillion annually passes a Payroll Resolution adopting the wage rates for all employees. The Payroll Resolution is scheduled for the first City Council meeting of each year. View the most recently adopted Payroll Resolution.
You have two options:
The topics sent directly to the City Mnager are generally about an item where the City Council would need to make a decision.
City Council meetings are held the first and third Monday of each month at 7 p.m. at City Hall in the Council Chambers. The City Council Chambers are located on the 2nd floor of City Hall. Visit the City Council page for more information.
All City Council meetings are televised and can be viewed live on cable television channel 3, or Online Streaming. You can also review the City Council Agendas and Minutes from past meetings.
Please, visit Our Government page to learn more about the structure of the Vermillion's Government.
Council members do not have set hours at City Hall. Residents are welcome to reach them via their listed contact information.
Action to name or rename will be completed via a City Council Resolution. Proposals to rename a City facility, room or public space whether for a major gift or as a community request are not encouraged. Please visit our Public Space Naming Policy page for more information.
Building permit requests are done by completing the Building Permit Application (PDF) and submitting them to City Hall, Administration Office. After the permit is reviewed and approved by the Building Official, you will be notified by phone to come to City Hall, pick up your permit, and pay the fees associated with it. Questions regarding building permits can be directed to the Building Official at 605-677-7088.
Yes, the City requires a building permit for all new construction and remodeling involving structural changes. Find documents related to building on our Building and Housing page.
Building permits are required for all fences. Visit the Building & Housing page for information about forms and applications required for building.
Yes, the City requires a permit for signs. Compete a Sign Permit Application (PDF) and submit to City Hall, Administration Office.
The City Rental Housing Inspector and can be reached at 605-677-7090.
No, the City does not have a mold expert on staff. Please contact a company to do testing if you believe you have a mold issue or problem. View inspection information on our Code Enforcement page.
Please, contact Jim Balleweg, Animal Control Officer, at 605-677-7089. Visit our Animal Control page for related information.
No, the City does not control or handle snakes and bats. Please call a nuisance animal removal company if you are having an issue. Visit our Code Enforcement page to learn about the primary duties of this department in our community.
No, the City does not take unwanted pets. The nearest humane societies are located in Yankton. Visit the Heartland humane Society website and ( Siouxland Humane Society website in Sioux City, IA.
If you have weed or nuisance complaints contact Code Enforcement at 677-7050. For more information, visit our Code Enforcement page.
You have 24 hours after any fall of snow or freezing rain to remove snow or spread a suitable material on the sidewalk to prevent the sidewalk from being slippery and dangerous to pedestrian travel. After 24 hours, if your sidewalk has not been cleared you will be fined. If necessary, the City will remove the snow/ice from your sidewalk at the property owner’s expense. Visit our Street Department page for more information on snow removal.
You can contact a Housing Inspector at 605-677-7050 to report rundown and unsafe housing conditions. The City also requires vacant buildings that meet certain criteria to be registered to ensure they are secured and maintained.
Inspectors are available Monday - Friday during regular business hours. They can be reached at 605-677-7050.
Building Permits are required for re-siding when more than 50% of any building wall is being replaced or repaired. If you live in a Historic District, the Vermillion Historic Preservation Commission can provide information regarding historic guidelines. Contact the Administration Office for more information. 605-677-7050.
Contact South Dakota One Call by dialing 811.
Work must be commenced and an inspection requested within 180 days of permit issuance and one year to complete the project. Failure to initiate construction work and call for inspection will invalidate the permit.
Building Permits are required for re-roofing when more than 50% of any roof surface is being replaced or repaired. If you live in a Historic District, the Vermillion Historic Preservation Commission can provide information regarding historic guidelines. Contact the Administration Office for more information. 605-677-7050.
A building permit is required to ensure code compliance for structural integrity and minimum life safety for building, plumbing, mechanical and electrical systems.
The building permit fee is based on the valuation of construction. A valuation and fee schedule is available here.
An approximate cost of the work must be provided. Site plans, foundation plans and floor plans may be required. These plan specifications and diagrams must be submitted for review that adequately detail how the proposed work is to be completed. The submitted plans shall be complete enough that the inspector could build the project according to the submitted plans.
No, contractors are required to obtain permits from the State of South Dakota. Regional inspectors will perform inspections and attach stickers showing the work was completed. City Inspectors will verify electrical and plumbing work has been completed correctly with these stickers.
Some home based businesses are considered home occupations and may be allowed to operate in conjunction with a residence. A copy of the standards regulating home occupations may be obtained by contacting the Building Official.
No, the property owner is required to locate their own property corners. They may do the work themselves by using a plat or a mortgage survey, or hire a surveyor to locate the property corners. We have a majority of plats and some of the mortgage surveys available. Please visit the Engineering page to read more.
Alleys and streets are typically paved at the fronting property owner's request and at their cost. Although rare, the City Council may require that an alley or street be paved. However, the cost is still the property owners. Property owners can follow the steps below to initiate a paving project:
For further question, please contact Jose Dominguez, city engineer.
This fee is charged to all properties within the City, with the exception of the County. The money generated is used to pay for projects, repairs, maintenance and studies associated with the storm sewer system. Although there might not be a storm sewer directly in or on your property every citizen benefits from having a storm sewer system that functions in a safe and efficient manner. Visit our Storm Water Management page to read more.
Please contact Denny Martens, Airport Manager at 605-677-7080 for questions related to the Airport. You may also visit our Airport page.
Please contact Jose Dominguez, City Engineer at 605-677-7050 for questions regarding sidewalk repair. Find more information on our Sidewalk Repair Program page.
Complete a City of Vermillion Employment Application and submit to City Hall.
Attention: Applications for Fire Chief can be picked up at City Hall in the Administration Office, or from the City of Vermillion website. Training and equipment is paid for by the Fire Department. For more information or if you have questions contact the Fire Department at 605-677-7098.
Please, call the Fire Department at 605-677-7098 to arrange a time and day to tour the fire station.
Yes, you can have a recreational fire pit as long as it adheres to the Outdoor Fire Ordinance. See requirements in the Recreational Outdoor Fire Ordinance.
Ambulance billing is completed by Physician's Claims Company, Inc. You can contact them at 1-877-882-9911.
Vermillion Fire and EMS has a certified car seat technician! Please call the Vermillion Fire Station at 605-677-7098 to make an appointment.
It's a high-security box system, designed to give firefighters and emergency services immediate access to locked buildings, elevators, and other secured areas. Visit the Knox-Box page for more information.
Installation of a Knox-Box on your property will not only allow firefighters faster access in case of an emergency, but will also prevent expensive forcible entry should emergency services be required while the premises are unoccupied. Costly front doors and entry ways needn't be harmed if entry keys are available on-site! for more information, visit the Knox-Box page.
Following your purchase of a Knox-Box from the factory, you will mount it securely on the exterior of your building; attractive recessed-mount models are available. All necessary access keys will be locked inside by a representative of the fire department; only the fire department's master key can open the box. The Knox-Box gives the fire department a simple alternative to expensive, time-consuming forcible entry. The generous interior capacity allows you to store everything emergency personnel may require the following in complete security until needed:
Visit the Knox-Box page to learn more.
Security has always been a Knox strong point. Designed for maximum protection, each virtually indestructible box features a special high-security Medeco lock and key. This Medeco restricted locking system guards against unauthorized key duplication. Keys aren't even available to locksmiths or lock distributors-only The Knox Company can supply these keys! The Knox-Box system offers maximum security at every step. Each city has an exclusive key code. All Knox Box stations in that city are keyed alike-and only the fire department has master keys. Visit the Knox-Box page for more information.
Each Knox-Box is shipped with complete mounting instructions; however, your fire department will assist you in choosing a proper location for mounting. After installation is completed, the fire department will conduct an inspection of the installation and lock building keys inside the box. As soon as building keys are locked inside the box, it is ready to provide immediate access to emergency personnel 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Please contact the Fire Department at 605-677-7098 for installation inquiries.
The Library is open:
You may sign up and reserve a computer by calling 605-677-7060 or stop in the Library.
You can sign up by going to the Library Website. Most after school programs and adult programs do not require sign up.
Visit the Library website and click on the card catalog, or call 605-677-7060.
Please, contact the Light Department at 605-677-7073.
Please, contact the Light Department at 605-677-7073 with the location of the street light.
Yes, it is located in Historic Downtown Vermillion. You can find it in the City Hall parking lot at 25 Center Street.
Questions about your load management controller can be directed to the Light Department at 605-677-7073.
Mosquito control agencies use truck-mounted fogging units to apply insecticides as an ultra-low-volume (ULV) spray. ULV spray units dispense very fine aerosol droplets (fog) that stay aloft and kill mosquitoes on contact. The amount of insecticide sprayed by ULV units is small compared to the area treated, usually about 3 to 5 ounces per acre, which minimizes exposure and risks to people and the environment. Some communities have thermal foggers that use an oil carrier that is heated to disperse the pesticide in a dense smoke-like fog.
Mosquito control is locally funded and carried out by city or tribal governments.
Some communities decide to fog because of the nuisance caused by hoards of biting mosquitoes. In some situations, officials may decide to fog because testing of mosquitoes and wild birds may have shown that mosquito-borne West Nile virus is present in the community. Contact your city or tribe to determine why that agency has decided to fog for mosquitoes.
The best time to kill adult mosquitoes by fogging is at dusk, when they are most active and looking for food (mosquitoes feed on human or animal blood). The aerosol fog primarily targets flying mosquitoes, which is why the timing of the spray is critical.
There is no law in South Dakota that requires local governments to notify citizens before fogging for mosquitoes. However, many mosquito control agencies will notify individuals who request notification before fogging begins. Also, some mosquito control products require public notification before use. Failure to follow a product label is a violation of SDCL 38-32-44(2) with fines up to $1000.00. Contact your local mosquito control office for more information or if you wish to be notified personally.
The most commonly used products are synthetic pyrethroid insecticides (such as Scourge® and Anvil®), pyrethrins and malathion. All insecticides used for mosquito control in South Dakota must be registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the South Dakota Department of Agriculture (SDDA).
During the fogging, flying mosquitoes within the treated area are killed. Although the local mosquito population is reduced for a few days, fogging does not prevent mosquitoes from re-entering the area.
Fogging will kill only part of the mosquitoes in your area for a few days. Consequently, individuals should always use personal protection when mosquitoes are present:
When possible, avoid places and times when mosquitoes bite.
Wear light-colored protective clothing. Tightly woven materials that cover arms and legs provide some protection from mosquito bites. Keep trouser legs tucked into boots or socks, and collars buttoned.
Make sure door and window screens fit tightly and all holes are repaired.
Use mosquito netting when sleeping outdoors or in an unscreened structure, and to protect small babies any time they are outside.
If participating in outdoor activities when mosquitoes are biting, wear protective clothing (shoes, socks, shirt and long pants).
For additional protection from mosquitoes, use an insect repellent. The more DEET a product contains, the longer the repellant can protect against mosquito bites. However, concentrations higher than 50 percent do not increase the length of protection. For most situations, 10 percent to 25 percent DEET is adequate. Apply repellents to clothes whenever possible; apply sparingly to exposed skin if label permits. Consult a physician before using repellents on young children.
The USEPA reviews and approves insecticides (and other pesticides) and their labeling to ensure those used to protect public health are applied by methods that minimize the risk of human exposure and adverse health and environmental effects. Generally, there is no need to relocate during mosquito control fogging. The insecticides have been evaluated for this use and have been found to pose minimal risk to human health and the environment when used according to label directions. For example, USEPA has estimated the exposure and risks to both adults and children posed by ULV aerial and ground applications of the insecticides malathion and naled. For all the scenarios considered, exposures ranged from 100 to 10,000 times below the amount of pesticide that might pose a health concern. These estimates assumed several spraying events over a period of weeks and also assumed that a toddler would ingest some soil and grass in addition to dermal exposure. Other mosquito control insecticides pose similarly low risks. Nevertheless, because insecticides are inherently toxic, no pesticide is absolutely risk free. The likelihood of experiencing adverse health effects as a result of exposure to any pesticide depends primarily on the amount of pesticide that a person contacts and the amount of time the person is in contact with that pesticide. In addition, a person's age, sex, genetic makeup, lifestyle and/or general health characteristics can affect his or her likelihood of experiencing adverse health effects as a result of exposure to insecticides. Although mosquito control insecticides pose low risks, some people may prefer to minimize or to avoid exposure to these chemicals. Here are some common sense steps to help reduce possible exposure to insecticides:
Listen and watch for announcements in the local media about fogging for mosquitoes and remain indoors during the application in your neighborhood.
If possible, remain inside whenever fogging takes place.
People who suffer from chemical sensitivities or feel fogging could aggravate a preexisting health condition should consult their doctor or local health department and take special measures to avoid exposure.
Close windows and doors and turn off your air conditioning (or set it to circulate indoor air) when fogging is taking place in the immediate area.
Do not let children play near or behind truck-mounted applicators when they are in use. To ensure the fogging trucks have left the area, keep children inside during fogging and for about one hour after fogging.
Bring pets inside and cover ornamental fish ponds to avoid direct exposure.
Consult your doctor if you think you are experiencing health effects from the fogging.
More information about spraying for adult mosquitoes may be found on the USEPA's Web site: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/about/index.htm
The amount of insecticide used to fog for adult mosquitoes is much smaller than that used to spray fruit and vegetable insect pests. However, it is always a good idea to wash fruits and vegetables before eating them to remove soil and other contaminants.
If you suspect that you are reacting to an insecticide, call your physician or local poison control center.
Additional information about the active ingredients in insecticides may be obtained from the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) at 1-800-858-7378 from 8:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m. (Central time) seven days a week, excluding holidays; or visit NPIC's Web site at http://npic.orst.edu
During the pesticide registration process, USEPA considers the effect of insecticides on wildlife. If the insecticide is applied according to label directions, wildlife should not be killed or injured with the exception of insects similar in size to mosquitoes. If you have any concerns about this issue after they have sprayed in your area, contact SDDA.
Yes, all individuals who use insecticides to control mosquitoes are required to be licensed by SDDA. There are two exceptions: homeowners who fog for mosquitoes on their own residential property and individuals who use certain insecticides to treat tires for mosquitoes at tire shops, tire recycling sites and similar businesses. For information about mosquito control licensing, call SDDA at 1-605-367-5439.
If you choose to fog your yard for mosquitoes, be sure to use only insecticides labeled for control of adult mosquitoes. Be sure to follow the label directions exactly. However, spraying your backyard with an insecticidal fog or mist is effective only for a short time. If the insecticide label permits, spraying dense vegetation like that found along the edge of a woods where mosquitoes rest will last somewhat longer. Mosquitoes will return when the effect of the spray has ended.
If the depression floods for 10 or more days, it can produce mosquitoes. However, use ONLY insecticides that are labeled for treating water for mosquitoes. Small impoundments of water can be treated for mosquito larvae with "BTI," a bacterial insecticide. One product that is available at many hardware stores for this purpose is doughnut-shaped BTI briquets (Mosquito Dunks ®). Be sure to follow the insecticide label directions exactly.
Yes, some communities conduct community-wide mosquito abatement programs. Whenever possible, the primary effort of such programs should be identification of mosquito-breeding sites, followed by removal or treatment of these sites with an insecticide used for control of mosquito larvae (the immature form of a mosquito). Also, homeowners should remove old tires and other unused water-holding containers, change the water in birdbaths, and drain wading pools weekly. Insect light electrocutors ("bug zappers") or sound devices do little to reduce biting mosquitoes in an area. Installing bird or bat houses to attract these insect-eating animals has been suggested as a method of mosquito control. However, there is little scientific evidence that this significantly reduces the mosquito population around homes.
Call your local health department or the South Dakota Department of Health or visit the Department's Web site http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/index.html
You can sign up online at Vermillion Parks and Recreation website or by stopping into the Recreation Office in the National Guard Armory. When you sign up, either online or in person, you will create a user profile. You can use your profile to keep track of activity schedules and get updates on program changes and cancellations.
To reserve the Armory call the Recreation Office at 605-677-7064 or email Ryan Baedke. Armory rental prices and lease agreement are on the Vermillion Parks and Recreation website.
Updates on activities will be posted on the Vermillion Parks and Recreation website or on the Vermillion Parks and Recreation Facebook page. You can also contact the Armory at 605-677-7064.
You may contact the Parks Department at 605-677-7082; park shelter reservations and use are free of charge.
Retrieve the City Tree Guide (PDF) or call 605-677-7082 for more information.
Camping spots are free for the first three days or two nights and are on a first come first serve basis.
Yes, electric and sewer hook ups are provided at Lion’s park.
For Mosquito control information, please contact a Parks Technician at 605-677-7082. Visit our Mosquito Control page to read more.
Due to the limited number of boxes, this program is intended for short-term needs. Example: While awaiting placement in a assisted living community. A Knox-Box can be requested for up to 8 weeks. Loan extensions or reapplications are dependent upon availability and Fire Chief’s discretion. For more information, please contact the Fire Department at 605-677-7098.
Yes, you can purchase your own residential Knox-Box. Residential Knox-Boxes cost from $165 to $195. Visit the Knox-Box page for procedure on how to purchase a box online.
For more information, please contact the Fire Department.
To obtain a residential knox Box, please contact the Fire Department at 605-677-7098. Fill out a deposit form and drop it off at the Fire Station along with a
check payable to the Vermillion Fire Department. Deposit is $100. The individual must meet the eligibility criteria.
The Landfill's operation hours are Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. and Saturday 8 a.m. to noon (From April to October). Visit the Landfill page for more information.
The operation hours are Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. and Saturday 9 a.m. to noon. Visit the Solid Waste page for more information on recycling locations.
Landfill vouchers can be picked up at City Hall, the Library, and the Clay County Courthouse. The voucher will provide up to a $12 value and expire November 30th of each year. Find more information on the Landfill page.
A landfill fee schedule can be found on the Landfill page.
Find information on accepeted waste material on the Landfill page.
Please visit our Missouri Valley Recycling Center page the for information about recycling materials.
If your recycling pick up day falls on a Holiday, your recyclables will be picked up the following Monday. Read more on the Curbside Recycling page.
The City does not provide garbage service. A private business will need to be contacted to set up waste disposal. Please visit our Solid Waste page for more information.
Yes, the City will remove the branches. Please, contact Pete Jahn, Street Superintendent, at 605-677-7078 for assistance.
Snow from your driveway or sidewalk is not allowed to be pushed into the street and a fine of $50 will be assessed to the property owner. Visit the Snow Removal page for more information.
Utility set up is done by the City Finance Office Utility Clerk at 605-677-7056.
Yes, the Finance office accepts credit cards. Visit the Utility Billing page for further information about accepted forms of payment..
The City does not require a retail business license. Please contact the Finance Department for further assistance.
The City of Vermillion provides electric, water, waste water and curbside recycling to the majority of properties within the City. There are areas of the City that Clay Union Electric Cooperative serves with electricity and some apartments and trailer homes are provided water by the property owners.
Utility bills are due on the 10th of each month. Bills received after the 10th are considered past due and will receive a 5% penalty. Payments can be made at City Hall, 25 Center Street. After hours payments can be put in the drop box located in the City Hall entryway or the drive-up box located on Elm Street on the East side of City Hall. Visit the Utility Billing page for more information.
Yes, the City offers an automatic payment option. Complete the Authorization for Automatic Payment Form (PDF) and return to City Hall. The ACH will be processed on the 10th of the month. If the 10th falls on a weekend or holiday the payment will be processed on the next business day. Automatic payments remain in effect until you notify us in writing to terminate the authorization. Find more information on our Utility Billing page.
The electric and water meters are read each month between the 10th and 20th. View the Utility billing Rates (PDF). The Waste Water Rates (PDF) are adjusted each April based upon the average of the water billing for the property from the previous January, February and March. This rate is used for the monthly billing until the following April. If you have questions about your bill please call the Finance Office at 605-677-7056.
Pour water into all your floor drains, and pour or run water in all of your sinks, and bath tubs and showers drains. If the smell continues you need to call a plumber. Visit the Wastewater page for more information.
Call the Wastewater department at 605-677-7077 from 7:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through Friday or call the communications center at 605-677-7070 after hours and on weekends and they will contact the on-call person. The Wastewater department will check our sewer main to confirm that the City's sewer is flowing properly. If it is, you will need to contact a plumber to unplug your sewer line. Visit the Wastewater page for more information.
If this would happen, you need to contact the Wastewater department at 605-677-7077 immediately, so we can document the damage. You will also need to go to City Hall and file a claims report that will be sent to the City's insurance adjuster and they will make a decision on whether the City is responsible. For more information, visit the Wastewater page.
Our water averages about 14 grains per gallon. Visit the Water page to read more.
Our water comes from five wells that pump water from underground to the treatment plant. For more information, visit our Water page.
The different colors indicate how much water will flow out of the hydrant to assist the fire department. Read more on our Water page.